I have visited a few different primary and preschool classrooms this month and one thing they all have in common is the hand raising ritual. A teacher asks a question and waits for the hands to go up. Many do, some waving wildly. Many don’t, the children staring into space or playing with the rug. Some children seem to still call out, no matter the grade level. When the teacher eventually calls on a child, often he doesn’t know the answer and stumbles for a minute or so before the teacher moves onto to someone else. Sometimes the child does answer in a correct, thoughtful way, while the rest of the children zone out or anxiously wait for their own turn. The teacher is often exhausted from trying to keep the children on-task.